Graphs and charts = Grafici e diagrammi
Il mondo degli affari non esiste senza incontri e presentazioni, e spesso in questi esibizioni si dimostrano sia le conoscenze e competenze sia l'ignoranza e l'incapacità di dare informazioni. Nei due capitoli precedenti vi abbiamo già esposto le riunioni e le presentazioni. In questa sezione, invece imparerete e conquisterete la conoscenza dei grafici e delle tabelle, che sono certamente importanti per le presentazioni aziendali. Tale visualizzazione può aiutare notevolmente a specificare e descrivere alcuni dati.
1. USEFUL VOCABULARY = LESSICO UTILE
1.1.USEFUL EXPRESSIONS FOR DIAGRAMS (CHARTS AND GRAPHS) = ESPRESSIONI UTILI PER I DIAGRAMMI (TABELLE E GRAFICI)
- diagram = diagramma
- bubble diagram = diagramma a bolle
- chart/table = tabella
- line chart = grafico a linee
- bar chart (American English also ‘bar graph’) = grafico a barre
- paired bar chart = grafico a barre a specchio
- percentage bar chart = grafico a barre con percentuale
- column chart = istogramma
- flow chart (flow diagram) = diagramma di flusso
- pie chart = grafico a torta
- graph = grafico
- single line graph (graph with only one line (possibly) illustrating one trend) = grafico con una singola linea
- multiple line graph = graph with more than one lines( possibly illustrating different trends) = grafico con più linee
- column = colonna
- segment = segmento
- line = linea
- solid line = a line entirely without holes (dots) = linea continua
- broken line = a disconnected (not continuous) line = linea punteggiata
- dotted line = a line made up of dots or dashes = linea tratteggiata
- curve = curva
- quadrant = quadrante
- axis (vertical/horizontal) (plural: axes) = asse (verticale/orizzontale)
1.2.USEFUL EXPRESSIONS FOR DESCRIBING THE PROCESS (FLOW) OF A PARTICULAR EVENT WITH A DIAGRAM = FRASI UTILI PER DESCRIVERE CON IL DIAGRAMMA IL CORSO DI CERTI EVENTI
- to increase/to rise/to go up/to grow = aumento
- to take off/to shoot up/to rocket/to soar/to boom/to jump = aumentare rapidamente
- to reach peak/to reach the highest point = raggiungere il punto più alto
- to peak = raggiungere il picco
- to expand = espandere
- to recover/to pick up = recuperare
- to recover strongly = recuperare fortemente
- to recover slightly = recuperare leggermente
- to remain steady/stable/constant = rimanere stabile
- to stabilize/to level off = stabilizzare
- to level out = livellare
- levelled out/off/stabilized = livellato
- (to reach) a plateau = stabilizzarsi
- to fluctuate = fluttuare
- to decrease/to decline/to fall/to go down/to drop/to reduce = diminuire/declinare
- to shrink = restringere
- to plunge/to dive/to plummet /to sank/to crash/to tumble = diminuire improvvisamente
- to reach the lowest point/to hit the bottom/to hit a low/to bottom out = raggiungere il fondo, il punto più basso
1.3. NOUNS OF MOVEMENT = SOSTANTIVI CHE ESPRIMONO MOVIMENTO
- decline = diminuire
- decrease = diminuzione
- drop = calo, caduta
- fall = ribasso
- fluctuation = fluttuazione
- improvement = miglioramento
- increase = aumento
- recovery = ripresa
- reduction = riduzione
- rise = aumento
1.4.OTHER USEFUL EXPRESSIONS = ALTRE ESPRESSIONI UTILI
- visual display = visualizzazione
- give or take = più o meno
- dip = calo
- to dip = diminuire
- peak = sommità
- position on the market = posizione sul mercato
- highest level = il livello più alto
- lowest level = il livello più basso
- to improve = migliorare
- performance = prestazione
- ups and downs = alti e bassi
- trend = tendenza
- upward trend = tendenza in rialzo
- downward trend = tendenza in ribasso
- overall trend = tendenza generale
- to represent = rappresentare
- correlation = correlazione
- correlated /correlative = correlato
- a correlation between… = correlazione tra…
- inverse correlation = correlazione inversa
- inversely correlated = inversamente correlato
- just short of = poco meno di
- to reach = raggiungere
- rise of some ________ €/$ / increase of some (approximately) ________ €/$ = aumento del ________ €/$
- percent / per cent (plural: percent/per cent) = percentuale
- percentage = percentuale
- section = sezione
- fraction = frazione
- share = parte
- to be well above/to be way over (e.g. expectations)= essere ben al di sopra (ad es. delle aspettative)
- to be well below/to be way under = essere ben al di sotto (ad es. delle aspettative)
- to account for (e.g. this part accounts for 5%)= rappresenta (ad es. questa parte rappresenta il 5%)
- to be preferred … over = essere scelto al posto di…
1.5.USEFUL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS WHEN DESCRIBING DIAGRAMS = AGGETTIVI E AVVERBI UTILI PER DESCRIVERE I DIAGRAMMI
- steady (not liable to fluctuate or especially to fall) = costante
→ steadily (in a steady manner) = costantemente
- steep (sudden and very big (esp. of a rise or a fall in an amount) = notevole
→ steeply (in a steep manner) = notevolmente
- moderate (being within reasonable or average limits; not excessive or extreme) = moderato
→ moderately (to a moderately sufficient extent or degree) = moderatamente
- slight (small in quantity or degree; not much or almost none or at least some) = leggero percettibile
→ slightly (to a small degree or extent) = leggermente
- minimal (the least possible) = minimo
→ minimally (to a minimal degree) = minimamente
- substantial (fairly large) = sostanziale
→ substantially (to a great extent or degree) = sostanzialmente
- considerable (large/relatively large in number/amount/extent/degree) = considerevole
→ considerably (to a great extent/ degree) = considerevolmente
- sharp = (of a rise/fall/change) sudden and rapid = improvviso
→ sharply (suddenly and rapidly) = improvvisamente
- enormous (large in size/extent/amount/power/degree) = enorme
→ enormously (very much/extremely) = enormemente
- huge (unusually great in size/amount/degree/especially extent/scope) = enorme
→ hugely (extremely) = enormemente
- rapid (done or occurring in a brief period of time) = rapido
→ rapidly (with rapid movements) = rapidamente
- swift (moving very fast) = rapido
→ swiftly (in a swift manner) = rapidamente
- quick (done with speed/moving fast/happening very soon) = veloce
→ quickly/quick (both adverbs) (fast; soon) = velocemente
- sudden (happening without warning or in a short space of time) = improvviso
→ suddenly (quickly and without warning) = improvvisamente
- gradual (proceeding in small stages) = graduale
→ gradually (in a gradual manner) = gradualmente
- gentle (soft and mild) = gentile
→ gently (in a gentle manner) = gentilmente
- marked (easily noticeable) = marcato
→ markedly (in a clearly noticeable manner) = marcatamente
- rough (not quite exact or correct) = approssimativo
→ roughly (imprecise but fairly close to correct) = approssimativamente
- spectacular (very impressive) = spettacolare
→ spectacularly (very impressively) = spettacolarmente
- dramatic (sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect) = drammatico
→ dramatically (in a dramatic manner) = drammaticamente
- disastrous → ((of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences) = disastroso
- disastrously = disastrosamente
- slow (not moving quickly or taking a comparatively long time) = lento
→ slowly (without speed) = lentamente
- encouraging (giving courage/confidence/hope) = incoraggiante
→ encouragingly (in an encouraging manner) = in modo incoraggiante
- disappointing (not up to expectations) = deludente
→ disappointingly (in a disappointing manner) = in modo deludente
2. USEFUL PHRASES = FRASI UTILI
2.1.GENERAL PHRASES = FRASI GENERALI
- As we can see from the diagram/chart/graph... = Come possiamo vedere dal diagramma/tabella/grafico ...
- As can be seen from the diagram/chart/graph… = Come si può vedere dal diagramma/tabella/grafico…
- According to the diagram/chart/graph... = In accordo con il diagramma/tabella/grafico…
- As the diagram/chart/graph illustrates... = Come illustra il diagramma/tabella/grafico...
- The diagram/chart/graph presents data (showing)... = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico presenta i dati, (che mostrano)…
- The diagram/chart/graph (clearly)shows/indicates that... = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico (chiaramente) indica che…
- As is evident from the diagram/chart/graph = Come si evince dal diagramma/tabella/grafico
- The diagram/chart/graph provides (strong) evidence that… = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico fornisce (forti) prove per…
- The diagram/chart/graph provides (strong) support for the theory/thesis that… = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico (indubbiamente) supporta la teoria che…
- From the diagram/chart/graph we can conclude that… = Dal diagramma/tabella/grafico possiamo concludere che…
2.2.PHRASES EXPRESSING NEGATION = FRASI CHE ESPRIMONO NEGAZIONE
- The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t illustrate… = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico non illustra …
- The diagram/chart/graph does not present data (showing)… = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico non presenta i dati, (che mostrano)…
- The diagram/chart/graph doesn't show... = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico non mostra …
- It is not evident from the diagram/chart/graph that... = Dal diagramma/tabella/grafico non è evidente che…
- From the diagram/chart/graph it is not evident/clear that… = Dal diagramma/tabella/grafico non è chiaro che…
- From the diagram/chart/graph we cannot conclude that… = Dal diagramma/tabella/grafico non possiamo concludere che…
- The diagram/chart/graph does not (clearly) indicate that… = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico non (di)mostra (chiaramente) che …
- The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t provide (strong) evidence that… = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico non fornisce (evidenti) prove che…
- The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t provide (strong) support for the theory/thesis that… = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico non sostiene (forti) teorie/tesi che…
2.3. PHRASES INDICATING INCONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE = FRASI CHE ESPRIMONO PROVE CONTESTABILI
- The diagram/chart/graph does not indicate/illustrate/show whether… = Il diagramma/tabella/grafico non indica/illustra/mostra se ….
- We can draw no conclusions regarding… from the diagram/chart/graph = In base al digramma/tabella/grafico non è possibile trarre conclusioni riguardo…
- The diagram/chart/graph provides inconclusive evidence regarding… = Diagramma/tabella/grafico non fornisce prove sufficienti per quanto riguarda…
TOM: Why aren’t the axes on this graph labeled?
JIM: Sorry, I didn’t know that they needed to be. I thought the figures spoke for themselves.
TOM: Even when it’s obvious what your graph is trying to show, your axes still need to be labeled.
JIM: Ok, I will next time, I promise. I apologize for the inconvenience.
TOM: It’s ok this time, but at least tell the room what’s going on.
JIM: Well our Y axis shows the amount of money we paid in investments, while the X axis is a standard temporal line.
TOM: And why do we have a negative quadrant?
JIM: To show how much money the previous year’s investments produced in the subsequent year. So these aren’t expenditures, but actual income.
TOM: So let me get this straight, you’ve got a crazy graph where negative means positive, and you still didn’t label your axes?
JIM: Yeah, I see your point, that is kind of weird, isn’t it?
TOM: So if I understand correctly, you’re using a logarithmic graph here, right?
JIM: That’s right.
TOM: Mind explaining why?
JIM: Sure, it’s just the nature of the industry. Sadly, to achieve incremental steps in boosting efficiency, it’s not enough just to expect a 1 to 1 correlation. You actually need to quadruple your efforts to see one step of improvement.
TOM: That’s extremely taxing on our resources isn’t it?
JIM: Yes, but you can at least see the usefulness of the investment in this graph. It may not be 1 to 1, but it definitely is consistent.
TOM: That’s true. You can see clearly that every time we’ve had the capacity to invest 4 times as much, the payoff was immediate.
JIM: That’s exactly the point, and there’s no other way to show that except with a log graph.
TOM: So what can we conclude from this graph?
JIM: Not very much, I’m afraid. It’s evident that there were substantial market events which influenced sales, but other deductions are hard to draw.
TOM: Then what’s the point of showing us this data, then?
JIM: That’s a good question. While it does not provide strong evidence for management’s theory about the usefulness of the changes it implemented, I think it’s helpful to see how external events can have an effect on otherwise well-conceived ideas.
TOM: Basically you’re showing us that we are impotent to combat external forces.
TOM: Well the management board isn’t going to like that too much.
JIM: I’m sure, but what can we do? Facts are facts.
TOM: Have you already assessed your figures?
JIM: Absolutely, we’ve already run several analyses.
TOM: And what have you determined.
JIM: Well the data clearly show the need for a more targeted approach.
TOM: How did you come up with that?
JIM: Well we can see spikes every time we have a sales campaign, which shows the relationship between our focused market tactics and effectiveness.
TOM: Are you sure about this?
JIM: Without a doubt. The data make a pretty solid case.
TOM: Well thanks for the information. I think we know how to frame our suggestions, now.
TOM: The growth in sales does not seem to match the increase in output, does it?
JIM: Sadly no. We’ve increased production significantly, while there is just a gentle rise in sales.
TOM: That’s not exactly a sustainable approach, is it?
JIM: Not really. We should be seeing a much more direct relationship.
TOM: Or at least seeing some sort of peaks in the sales figures, so that the regression towards normalcy would be an expected result of after-market effects.
TOM: So what are your suggestions?
JIM: To be honest, I think that data clearly indicate that we should halt production on this product. We have enough units in storage that we can redirect production capacities to a new product, maybe even a new launch.
TOM: So to develop something new?
TOM: Ok, so we’ll need to see this same graph again, now factoring in development activities.
JIM: Sure, by the end of next week?
The x axis of our chart indicates the twelve months of last year, while our sales in thousands of euros are on the y axis. It is clearly evident that our sales went up progressively in the first quarter of the year (from January to April) and reached a peak in April. Afterwards they fell in August and leveled out in September. A subsequent sharp rise that took place in September was followed by a dramatic fall in November. Then, sales made a significant recovery in December and the year ended encouragingly.
The line graph illustrates the number of internet users in the developed world and covers the period between 2010 and 2014. It clearly indicates that the number of internet users rose progressively and sharply during this period, starting at just under 67 per cent to reach more than 77% in 2014. There were no falls within this period. Despite the fact that we do not have the most recent numbers, it is hardly probable that this trend will ever reverse.
The line graph indicates the download rate per month of the TRX, WALQ, and SAY mobile apps over a time frame of ten months. It is apparent from the chart that TRX was the most fashionable app to download, while SAY was the least popular of the three.
To start, TRX and WALQ indicated a comparable pattern by both gradually rising from month 1 to month 10. Nevertheless, the purchases of WALQ continued to be notably lower than for the other product over this period. In month 1, purchases of TRX stood at around 34,000, while those for WALQ were about 8,000 lower. Excluding a minor decrease in the sixth month, downloads of TRX kept escalating until reaching their peak in the final month of just over 52,000. WALQ also went up at a solid rate, concluding the period of ten months at 41,000.
The product which users chose to download the least was SAY. This application began at somewhat under 25,000, and, in opposition to the other two products, dropped over the next three months to reach the lowest point that stood at approximately 19,000. Afterwards, it rose significantly over the subsequent months to finish the period at about 50,000.
The graph indicates the main reasons that people immigrated to and emigrated from Germany in 2014. It is not hard to determine from the graph that the primary factor was employment. Employment possibilities were listed as the reason for 34 per cent of immigration to Germany, and the number for emigration was very similar and stood at 28%. Another key reason influencing a move to Germany was study (over a fifth of people immigrated because of this). The percentages of people moving in order to join a family member were quite similar for immigration and emigration and stood at 25% and 23% respectively.
The chart illustrates the annual sales figures for 2013. As is noticeable from the graph, in the first quarter sales revenue was €925,000. In the second quarter it fell by €100,000 to €824,000. By the third quarter there was another drop – this time sales dropped by €50,000.
The graph indicates the annual sales figures for 2012. In comparison with the year before figures started to recover, and by June the sales had edged up by €230,000. In May, there was a significant jump of €500,000 to €910,000. Overall 2012 was s a very successful year.
The graph shows the annual sales figures for 2012. By May, the figures had risen to €240,000. As is obvious due to the nature of our products, summer is a slow time for us. Accordingly, in August there was a decrease of €35,000. But in September the sales plummeted by €80,000 to €285,000. October saw an improvement, with a rise to €450,000. The sales then dropped by €24,000 in November, and then rocketed by €240,000 in November. Overall, it was a flourishing year.
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