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Table of English Tenses = Tabella dei tempi verbali inglesi

Tabella dei tempi verbali inglesi = Table of English Tenses

I tempi verbali inglesi costituiscono uno dei capitoli più importanti della grammatica inglese. Di seguito viene proposta la tabella dei tempi verbali inglesi.

 

TEMPO

 

FORMA AFFERMATIVA/

NEGATIVA/

INFORMATIVA

USO

ESEMPI DI AVVERBI

Present Simple

HE/SHE/IT
+ She speaks Italian.
- She does not speak Italian. (doesn’t)
? Does she speak Italian?

I/YOU/WE/THEY
+: You speak Italian.
-: You do not speak Italian. (don’t)
?: Do you speak Italian?

1) Azioni abituali:
My brother often plays tennis.
I sometimes drink coffee.

2) Verità scientifiche:
The sun rises in the East.

3) Accordi prestabiliti, eventi con orari prestabiliti (es. orario):
The plane flies to Paris every Thursday.

4) Dopo alcuni verbi con i quali non si usa il Present Continuous (questi verbi esprimono situazioni, proprietà, emozioni, processi cognitivi, ecc.):
believe, be, hate, belong, hear, like, adore, sound, mean, prefer, remain, realize, see, seem, smell, own, understand, want, know.
I understand Italian.
He doesn’t like meat.

always, every

Monday/

July/week, never, occasionally,

normally, rarely, often, seldom, sometimes, usually

Present Continuous

I
+: I am speaking Italian. (I’m)
-: I am not speaking Italian
?: Am I speaking Italian?

HE/SHE/IT
+: He is speaking Italian. (He’s)
-: He is not speaking Italian. (isn’t)
?: Is he speaking Italian?

WE/YOU/THEY
+: They are speaking Italian. (They’re)
-: They are not speaking Italian. (aren’t)
?: Are they speaking Italian?

1) Azioni che accadono nel momento in cui parliamo (now, at the moment):
Sarah is reading now.

Tims listening to the news.

2) Azioni che accadranno in un futuro immediato:
She is going to Madrid on Sunday.
We’re meeting John tonight.

3) Azioni temporanee (spesso con today/this week/month/year):
His brother is working in London this month.

Sue usually goes to school by bus, but this week she is riding a bike.
4) Azioni che accadono intorno al momento in cui stiamo parlando (azioni più lunghe):
My brother is preparing for the test this month.

 

right now, at the moment, just, now, Listen!, Look!... (gli ultimi due non sono avverbi, ma spesso indicano che segue questo tempo verbale)

Past Simple

I/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/WE/YOU/THEY
+: You spoke Italian.
-: You did not speak Italian. (didn’t)
?: Did you speak Italian?

1) Azioni finite nel passato (di solito con i verbi perfettivi):
I visited Milan last week.
James watched TV yesterday.

yesterday, three minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Monday, (nelle forme interrogative si usa when)

Past Continuous

I/HE/SHE/IT
+: She was speaking Italian.
-: She was not speaking Italian. (wasn’t)
?: Was she speaking English?

WE/YOU/THEY
+: They were speaking Italian.
-: They were not speaking Italian. (weren’t)
?: Were they speaking Italian?

1) Azioni che non sono finite in un periodo preciso nel passato (di solito con i verbi imperfettivi):
John was reading a magazine yesterday evening.
He was listening to the radio for five hours.
2) Insieme al Past Simple:
While we were eating breakfast, the telephone rang.(di solito in questi casi la frase contiene la congiunzione while)

while, the whole evening, from eight to ten

Present Perfect Simple

HE/SHE/IT
+: She has spoken Italian. (He’s)
-: She has not spoken Italian. (hasn’t)
?: Has she spoken Italian?

I/WE/YOU/THEY

+: They have spoken Italian. (They’ve)
-: They have not spoken Italian. (haven’t)
?: Have they spoken Italian?

Azioni che sono cominciate nel passato e che continuano ancora
1) Il risultato dell’azione nel passato è importante per il presente (non importa quando è accaduta l’azione; quando abbiamo un momento preciso nel passato – es. yesterday – usiamo il Past Simple):
You have cleaned your room. (It is clean now.)
Has Mary ever been to Spain? (Does she now have this experience or not?)
2) Azioni appena terminate:
He has just played basketball. (It is over now.)

3) Azioni che sono iniziate nel passato e che continuano ancora – spesso con since (+ momento preciso nel tempo) o for (+ periodo di tempo):
We have lived in America since 1989. (We still live there.)

 

just, yet, never, ever, already, so far, up to now, since, for, recently, (pronomi interrogativi) How long/How many times,   today/this week/month/ year

con il Present Perfect Simple si usa il passato prossimo; es.

I haven’t seen him today. = Oggi non l'ho ancora visto.

Present Perfect Continuous

HE/SHE/IT
+: She has been speaking at the conference for an hour now. (He’s)
-: She has not been speaking the truth. (hasn’t)
?: Has she been speaking the truth?

I/WE/YOU/THEY

:+ They have been speaking at the conference for two hours now. (They’ve)
-: They have not been telling the truth. (haven’t)
?: Have they been telling the truth?

1) Azioni che sono iniziate nel passato e si svolgono fino al presente/ sono terminate in questo momento/ continuano nel futuro:

They have been waiting for you for two hours.

Lucy has been teaching for five years.

2) Svolgimento continuo di un’azione – si usa spesso con i seguenti verbi: try (provare), live (vivere), wait (aspettare), teach (insegnare), sit (sedere), learn (imparare), rest (riposare, stay (rimanere):

They have been living in the city for a year.

3) Per questo tempo è importante la durata e non tanto il risultato dell’azione come invece nel Present Perfect Simple e in confronto al Present Perect Simple si tratta di un’azione incompiuta:

I have been writing articles since five.

I have written three articles since five.

how long, since, for,lately, recently

 

Future Simple

I/YOU/HE/SHE/
IT/WE/ YOU/THEY

+: She will speak English. (She’ll)
-: She will not speak English. (won’t)
?: Will she speak English?

1) Azioni future che accadono a prescindere dalla volontà del parlante (birthday, weather, ecc.):
It will rain tomorrow.

Michael will be 16 next Tuesday.

2) Azioni spontanee (non sono progettate):
Wait! I’ll have a word with you.

in two years, next , tomorrow

Future Perfect Simple

I/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/WE/ YOU/THEY

+: She will have spoken English by next year. (She’ll)
-: She will not have spoken English by next year. (won’t)
?: Will she have spoken English by next year?

1) Quando vogliamo dire che un’azione accadrà prima di un’altra azione o prima di un preciso momento nel futuro:
I will have finished this homework by the time you come.
I will have finished this task by next week.

 

 

 

by next year,  by this time tomorrow

Future Perfect Continuous

I/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/WE/ YOU/THEY

+: She will have been speaking Italian for ten years by 2012. (She’ll)
-: She will not have been speaking Italian for ten years by 2012. (won’t)
?: Will she have been speaking Italian for ten years by 2012?

1) Questo tempo esprime un’azione che si svolge continuamente fino a un preciso momento nel futuro (talvolta anche oltre):

You will have been working at Krka for four years tomorrow.

 

in a year, next , tomorrow,

by next month,

by this time tomorrow

Going to

I
+: I’m going to speak to Peggy.
-: I am not going to speak to Peggy. (I’m)
?: Am I going to speak to Peggy?

HE/SHE/IT
+: She is going to speak to Peggy. (He’s)
-: She is not going to speak to Peggy. (isn’t)
?: Is she going to speak to Peggy?

WE/YOU/THEY

+: They are going to speak to Peggy. (They’re)
-: They are not going to speak to Peggy. (aren’t)
?: Are they going to speak to Peggy?

1) Azioni programmate nel futuro:

They are going to dance at the party.

They are going to fly to America.

2) Segnalare una situazione inevitabile:

Look at the sky! It is going to snow.

Marys pregnancy tummy is big now. She is going to have a baby soon.

in one week, next month, tomorrow

Past Perfect Simple

I/WE/YOU/THEY/
HE/ SHE/IT

+: He had spoken to him before John moved. (He’d)
-: He had not spoken to him before John moved. (hadn’t)
?: Had he spoken to him before John moved?

Questo tempo corrisponde al trapassato prossimo. Anche in inglese si usa questo tempo solo quando è in relazione a un’altra azione del passato (l’ultima è spesso nel Past Simple); quando parliamo di un’azione accaduta prima di un’altra azione passata.

When Peter came home, they had already had lunch. = Quando Peter è tornato, loro avevano già pranzato.

When, before, after, as soon as, by the time

Past Perfect Continuous

I/WE/YOU/THEY/
HE/ SHE/IT

+: She had been speaking the truth before she left. (He’d)
-: She had not been speaking the truth before she left. (hadn’t)
?: Had she been speaking the truth before she left?

Questo tempo si usa quando si parla di azioni che sono iniziate nel passato e sono terminate in un determinato momento nel passato. Questo è l'equivalente passato del Present Perfect Continuous, con la differenza che il Present Perfect Continuous continua fino al presente, mentre il Past Perfect Continuous fino a un preciso momento o fino ad un’altra azione nel passato.

When I saw her cat in the morning, it was really tired. It had been running around for the whole night. = Quando vidi il suo gatto la mattina, era stanco. Aveva corso per tutta la notte. (Ha cominciato a correre nel passato e ha continuato a correre fino al mattino.)

when, before, after, by the time

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